This bibliography reserves itself mainly to sources in English, French and German on Mani. To my chagrin my Greek is extremely basic and it would be foolish of me to recommend too many books and articles I have not read in detail, but over the years more than a few Greek language sources have crept in. However I 've desisted from listing all the Mani relevant Greek language articles in the volumes of the scholarly Greek local history journals Lakonikai Spoudai (Lakonian Studies) or Peloponniasiaka. I have an ever burgeoning collection of photocopies, photographs and pdfs of these sources but don't list them all below - mainly because they are both so specialised and so difficult to locate outside of Greece. A grant, from my University (Hertfordshire) to be a resident for three weeks in the British School at Athens in 2007 and a return visit in 2008 was a bit like being a pig in muck!
Just to infuriate bibliographers and librarians (amongst whose latter company I can claim allegiance) this is not in alphabetical order and defies certain, if not most, cataloguing rules and my transliteration is guided by ear, rather than any convention. It is also annotated with my sometimes rambling and individual comments and is full of snippets of information possibly not covered elsewhere in these pages.
For more general works on church architecture and the Grand Magne conundrum see the specific bibliographies on those pages.
For a list of people who have helped me in my researches please click here.
I've divided the bibliography into sections which I hope make sense. Most of the titles here are specific to Mani or have relevant sections on the peninsula - in other words I haven't bothered to include all the books on Greek history and topography I have read or referred to.
Many of the titles are naturally, out of print, and researchers will have to consult major academic and national libraries. For locations of individual volumes, those of you in the UK, try using COPAC which is a free online combined catalogue of over 20 of Britain's major research libraries including the British Library. For quite a few of the titles, especially those from the 19th century which are therefore out of copyright, it's well worth investigating Google Book Search, where there are downloadable pdf versions of Leake, Gell etc.
N.B. COPAC seems to pick up everything in Oxford University's libraries but is more selective with Cambridge, for reasons I can guess at, only picking up the University Library and ignoring its extremely useful and friendly Faculty libraries.
Modern Travellers and observers of Mani
Selective Web links
Histories and academic papers
Churches, frescoes and other matters
Pre 20th century travellers to Mani
Modern accounts of Mani
Patrick Leigh Fermor
photographs by Joan Eyres Monsell (only in hardback edition)
Mani: Travels in the Southern Peloponnese
John Murray. 1958 (numerous reprints and in Penguin Books since 1984) ISBN 0 14 011511 0
This book which has remained in print for many years is an evocative and poetic account of the author's journey with Joan Eyres Monsell through the Mani in the late 1950s. Translated into many languages (including belatedly Greek) Mani is literature first and foremost - if you wish to classify it then it is, perforce, a travel book. It is not a guide. The discursive, erudite and elegant style displays all the usual traits of Leigh Fermor's writing. Although not altogether educated in the conventional sense of the word (he was booted off at the age of 17 to walk to Constantinople due to his mis-behaviour at school, he held the hand of the local grocer's daughter!) Fermor is an auto-dicdat par excellence and has an encyclopedic knowledge of things and especially Greek things. His grasp of the arcane and his byzantine use of the English language - pun intended - can, to the lay reader, be either delightful or annoying - often at the same time. He claims to rate lucidity, brevity and euphony as the most important elements in prose style, but as his old friend, the late Xan Fielding, commented, Fermor's strength is his euphony. He has great sympathy for his subjects and is ferociously well read and extremely erudite. If he has a blank spot it is for the Franks in whom he can find little poetry and who he compares rather poorly to the Byzantines. In one particularly indulgent purple passage which spans over a number of pages he evokes the past glories of Byzantium in a manner which would delight the most rabid followers of the Megali Idea.
The Mani he so vividly describes has long since disappeared. When he arrived (rather typically he can't do it the easy way but insists on climbing on foot over the Taygetus from Sparta) there was no road down into the Deep Mani. Vathia, now a village of ghosts, still had occupants and he tells a story of a meal at Kalamata when he took his restaurant table into the sea to keep cool (try doing that today on Kalamata sea front ). His enormous store of Greek history, language and folklore means that he often strays away from the subject of the Mani into areas which the casual reader will find precocious though his language is so beguiling that one just goes with the flow. In fact Paddy is the first to admit that he is not particularly knowledgeable about Mani and that the book was, 'a clothespeg' on which he hung a number of themes about Greece which interested him. Thank God for clothespegs.
Paddy liked the place so much that in the 1960s he built a house at Kalamitsi just south of Kardamili. It took three years to complete during which time he and Joan camped out in the garden. It is a fascinating and delightful structure which he mostly designed himself. The house is completely sympathetic with the landscape being built into the contours. It was filmed some 17 years ago when the British media pundit Melvyn Bragg presented a 'South Bank" TV programme about Fermor (broadcast 22 Jan 1988). There is, I hasten to add, a large 'Private Property' notice outside his gate! I have heard that he will bequeath it to the Benaki Foundation on his death - which is, I hope, many years hence.
Paddy's wife, Joan, took the photographs for the book and is a constant presence in the text of 'Mani'. They met in Cairo during the war and eventually married in the early sixties. Joan, from all the accounts of those who met her, was an extraordinarily lovely and lovable personality and she and Paddy entertained a glittering cast of guests in their wonderful house. As John Craxton, the artist who created the original dust covers for many of Paddy's books, wrote of her, '…she loved good company and long and lasting friendships. It was her elegance, luminous intelligence, curiosity, understanding and unerring high standards that made her such a perfect muse to her lifelong companion and husband…'
Artists and writers such as Giacometti and Ghika, Peter Levi, Bruce Chatwin and Cyril Connolly were amongst others, almost too many to list, who enjoyed the Fermors' hospitality and one wishes one could have eavesdropped on the conversations lubricated by the many glasses of Paddy's favoured tipple, retsina, in one of the finest houses in Greece. The poet John Betjeman wrote to them in the late sixties after a visit, 'Of course that big room, is one of the rooms in the world'. Having briefly seen inside that room, I must concur. Joan sadly died in June 2003 at the age of 91. One of her last endeavours, though nearly blind, was to start reading 'War and Peace'…for the second time!
Fermor "spotters" will find him an elusive prey - I've only seen him four times in the 20+ weeks I've stayed in Kardamili over the last fourteen years and talked to him on only two occasions. He also tends to 'summer' in England to avoid the worst of the Grecian heat.The locals call him Kyrie Michali - a sobriquet he gained as a nom de geurre when he heroically assisted the Cretan resistance in World War II.
Paddy was knighted in the New Years Honours List of January 2004 for services to literature and Anglo Greek relations. It appears that he had refused this honour in 1991, out of modesty, "I'd written a few books, that's all". Hey ho.
Sadly all good things must pass. Paddy died on the 10th June 2011- he was 96. He returned to his house near Evesham the day before he died and will be buried next to Joan in Dumbleton churchyard.
I visited him once for tea in his lovely house near Kardamil in May 2005. Up until now I've resisted the temptation to put some photos up on this site, frankly he needed his privacy. But now I'm going to intrude. I hope his ghost doesn't mind.
The cloister like connecting passage through the house which overlooks the olive tree surrounded by a mosaic of pebbles.
A corner of the library, or living room, Betjeman's 'that room'. The view from the garden towards Meropi island
A wonderful marble table. The book is Gibbon's Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire- Paddy, then 90 - in keen conversation with my friend Cathie- the alcove set down from the library has the air of the Ottoman era.
An exterior view of the house, which tucks itself into the countryside with wonderful discretion. Oh that some of the now surrounding villas were as subtle. Paddy (right, as if he's not instantly recognisable!) talking to my friend Ralph.
Words of Mercury. John Murray. 2003. ISBN 0719561051
In 2003 this volume, edited by Artemis Cooper, who is writing Paddy's biography, was published (It's now been out in paperback for some years). For the those who already have all of Fermor's books it includes little that is actually new and mostly consists of well chosen passages from his published ouevre including 'Mani'. However there are bits and pieces which are of more than passing interest and were originally published in reviews and odd journals. There is a description of the building of his house near Kardamili from a sixties architectural magazine and for the first time Paddy's own account (from the Imperial War Museum, I believe) of the kidnapping of the German General Kreipe in Crete in 1944.
The best recent concise account of Paddy's life, and character, is the very fine article written by Anthony Lane in The New Yorker.(There are, I can assure you, many dreadfully shallow accounts). Lane incidentally, describes Paddy's frankly heroic ability to drink hard liquor - but, perforce, I have to to cavil about Lane's twitchy disapproval of Paddy's way of imbibing Greek firewater. Frankly, isn't the only, civilised way to drink ouzo - horis nero, ala, me pago??)
That bibulous aside apart, Lane obviously knows well, and clearly loves and admires Paddy, but doesn't let this cloud his shrewd perception of his subject. I therefore commend, Anthony Lane. An Englishman abroad; Patrick Leigh Fermor's journey through the twentieth century. The New Yorker, May 22, 2006. Vol.82. No. 14. pf.58 -
By the way if you want a witty and perceptive overview of the entire (well most of it) history of travel writing about Greece - which ends with an analysis of Fermor's oeuvre see Robert Eisner, Travelers to an Antique Land. Univ. Michigan Press. 1993. ISBN 0472082205.
News from the Village. Red Hen Press. 2010. ISBN 1597094714.
Dave Mason's book is a series of reflections on his encounters with Greece in general and Mani and Kardamili in particular over the past 30 years. It's an engrossing read, extremely well written (Dave is an established American poet). Mason first arrived in Mani in his twenties, newly married and extremely innocent. The locals called him and his wife Ta paidia 'The children'. Living, in the summer months, in a hut overlooking Kalamitsi they fell in love with a very different world. As I know many of the characters he describes and naturally the locations I must admit I couldn't help but get hooked, but one doesn't need to know Mani or Kardamili to enjoy this lyrical account of how Mason's relationship with Greece, matures and deepens, as does his identity as a poet.
The book is also about loss, of innocence and people, through broken relationships, death and distance. When he leaves Kardamili in his twenties the villagers insist that he will forget them. Dave never did, in fact it is the villagers who have forgotten him when he reappears 16 years later. Also the idyll he conjured in his first visit is slowly replaced with an awareness of the darker facets of the Greek soul and the lasting legacy of both the Civil War and the time of the Colonels. There are vivid portraits of more famous people. Paddy Leigh Fermor is still a close friend of Dave's, and through Paddy he met Bruce Chatwin. Mason's growing reputation as a poet brings him into the circles of Greek and Turkish poets and writers such as Katerina Anghelaki-Rooke and Orhan Pamuk.
If I write as if I've met David Mason, well I haven't. He lives in Colorado and I in England and we've never knowingly co-incided in Kardamili, but we have corresponded and my relationships with Greece and Kardamili have many intersections with his; we have mutual friends and connections.
This really is one of the finest memoirs of Greece by an American or a Brit, and, believe me, I've read a fair few.
The Morea. Jonathan Cape. 1958.
Liddell travelled in and wrote widely about Greece and Turkey during the 1950s. He was a English Lecturer in '50s and '60s Athens and was one of those minor literary figures Britain seems to excel in breeding. He must have known Leigh Fermor, but I stupidly failed to ask Paddy about Liddell when I had the opportunity. Liddell wrote novels, travel books and criticism which includes an early enthusiastic study of the novelist Barbara Pym, whom he met as a student in 1930s Oxford and was a close friend of until her death in 1980. Liddell died in Athens in 1993. His description of the Peloponnese is contemporaneous with that of Patrick Leigh Fermor's "Mani". It is interesting to compare their styles. Liddell is a more sober stylist and a lot less given to tendentious if fascinating forays into the arcane. Therefore he lacks the magic of Fermor's book but has in one of his chapters an evocative description of an Easter in the Mani in the mid '50s, when the road ran out at Platsa and the only way by land to the south was to hire a donkey and use the old kalderimi tracks. Long out of print but worth seeking out second hand.
Into Crusader Greece: A Tour of the Castles of the Morea. Centaur Press, 1964.
This travelogue from the early 1960s is long out of print and not of much use to the Mani aficionado as it only goes as far as Passava before backing out of the Mani proper. More the jottings of a keen amateur historian than a travel book it has its charms.
Peter Greenhalgh and Edward Eliopoulos
Deep in to Mani:Journey to the Southern Tip of Greece. Faber. London. 1985. ISBN 0-571-13524-2 (paperback)
This is great companion to the Deep Mani. It falls somewhere between the travel book and the guide. Little is given away by the writer (Greenhalgh. Eliopoulos provided the photographs) about the personality of the travellers (they visited the Mani in June 1980). At the same time it is not a guide book per se, nor again strictly speaking a history - although there is plenty of erudition in evidence and from dint of extraction one can work out a number of excellent itineraries. Indeed Paddy Leigh Fermor, in his review of the book (TLS, August 30. 1985) commented on their thoroughness. 'Many places not even mentioned by me - most of which (as I live there) I have seen since, but (due to sloth) by no means all - are described in lucid, captivating detail, and as soon as the weather gets a bit cooler, I plan to put the book in my pocket and slink south'.
The only drawback is the almost complete lack of information about the Outer Mani - but then that would have been another book. Long out of print in Britain (though a reprint was vaguely promised in June 2000 by Faber - this has slipped badly) German translations are still in print and on sale in Mani and from German booksellers. Usually correct in all details the book was written over twenty years ago and some topographical directions, such as the route to Trissakia, have changed with the spread of driveable tracks.
Peter Greenhalgh gave a delightful talk to the Hellenic Centre in London in November 2004, based on the book, which was accompanied by Eliopoulos' slides (some, unfortunately back to front!). Sadly Edward Eliopoulos, was too old and too infirm to make the journey from Athens to London but was represented by his son, Elias, and grandaughter Vivianna.
Thomeas Travel Services, Stoupa. ISBN 0 9537517 0 8
Bob has lived in Mani for a decade and works in Stoupa. This slim volume is a labour of love and a excellent introductory guide to the myriad villages and churches of Mani. A sound vade-mecum for the traveller in Mani. It's available in Britain, via good bookshops or online services such as Amazon, and is available in Greece, though stocks are running low. Bob is a very busy man in the summer months but can be found by asking around in Stoupa, but is, as I know from numerous emails, conversations and a number of highly enjoyable joint forays into the Mani countryside, a mine of information about the area. Bob is, with Mat Dean, in the process of expanding the scope of this book to include much more information. Publication date sometime in 2006.
OK here it is...
Bob Barrow and Mat Dean
Inside the Mani: A Guide
Published by Matthew Dean. 2006. ISBN 9789606313073
This c.200 page paperback guide is excellent. Fulsomely illustrated with hundreds of photos and maps it usefully blends Bob Barrow's keen and observant interest in Mani history and churches with Mat Dean's topographical walker's knowledge of the place.
People have often asked me if I am ever going to publish this website in book form. If I did it would look very much like this. I shall have to think of something else! Available in 2006 in Mani, Mat is working on getting it distributed in the UK and elsewhere. If you want a superb pocket sized guide to Mani - look no further.
Landscapes of the Southern Peloponnese: a countryside guide.
Sunflower Books. London. 2003. ISBN 1-85691-224-8
Michael was partly brought up in Greece and has spent years exploring the area, mostly on foot. This excellent volume, part of the Sunflower walking guide series which covers many mediterranean coasts and islands, suggests various walking itineraries in the southern Peloponnese including a dozen or so in Mani. There are exact directions, good maps and photographs and fascinating digressions - and, it has to be said, Michael gives my web guide a nice mention. The walking tours are for the serious walker rather than the casual stroller (and are rarely circular walks) but even those wedded to a car will find the routes of interest. Highly recommended.
Walking in Mani
Book 1. 10 walks in Exo Mani. centred on Stoupa, Kardamyli and Agios Nikolaos
Bob Barrow. Stoupa.2003
Mat's parents settled in Mani and Mat lives in the area. His guide - like Michael Cullen's above, provides a number of well researched (and walked) perambulations around the Exo Mani - they are usually circular walks. Published by the estimable Bob Barrow (who is proud that his Greek papers describe him as a 'publisher') it is on sale in most 'bookish' outlets in the Exo Mani- which naturally includes most supermarkets! Mat also edits and publishes an annual magazine on a wide variety of Mani related topics (from flowers to wallpaintings to the local football team!). Called Inside Mani it is widely available in Mani or contact Mat via the email address info at insidemani.gr (where the at is an @) There's a website of the magazine which has most of the articles online, you can get to by clicking on this highlighted text.
Walks in Stoupa and Kardamili
Marengo Publications. 2007. ISBN 978-1-9005333-05-9
I first came across Lance's excellent 'Six Walks in the Stoupa Area' in the mid '90s in Stanfords' wonderful map shop on Long Acre, London. This is an update of that volume. Lance knows Greece intimately and is the author of large parts of the highly recommendable Rough Guides to Greece. He's also an intrepid walker and highly knowledgable botanist. This is a great guide to walks around Kardamili and Stoupa and as a bonus includes an extremely accurate map of the area which Lance drew himself. Available from Lance at www.marengowalks.com
Frederick Gearing and Mariekaty Georgota
From the edge of Greek Space: Exo Mani
Stachi Publications. 2002. ISBN 9608032792
Fred Gearing, a now retired American Professor, first visited Exo Mani in the 1960s as an anthropological researcher and has been returning ever since to the house he built there. I at last met Fred in September '06 - and he is a lovely character with an acute understanding of the area. This book is his collaboration with Mariekaty Georgota, who runs an antique/craft shop in Kardamili and has had a home there for years. It is, intrinsically, a paean of love for the area - which sometimes means it strays from the verifiable into the realms of wishful thinking and poetry. Newcomers to Mani may find it difficult to follow the authors' trains of thought as it is often (and intentionally) impressionistic rather than factual. But for the Mani aficionado, it is necessary reading. Available in Mani bookshops - and Mariekaty has copies for sale in her boutique.
Selected Web Sites
There are any number of web sites which you can find using a good search engine such as Google. Many are holiday musings, enthusiastic locals singing the praises of their home towns in often less than felicitous English or commercial sites offering holidays, car hire, appartments etc. There is a very nicely designed site by the Municipality (Dimos) of Lefktro (The area from Prosilio as far as Ag. Nikon in Outer Mani) It has just got a small English language section. The URL is http://www.lefktro.gr/ . The Dimos of Itilo which covers most of western Mesa Mani has a web site at http://www.dimosoitilou.gr/ , as of 2004 the English version is still 'under construction'. For German speakers with no English (are there any left?) Silvia Nitsche-Martens aus Hamburg hat ein sehr nett illustriert Reiseführer von Mani (for those english speakers who can't understand my, doubtless inaccurate, if enthusiastic, German - 'a very nicely illustrated guide to the Mani') at http://www.matapan.de/
Additionally there is an extensive Greek Mani site by George Venizeleas which covers all the dimos of the area and the history and customs of the area. It's full of pictures but the textual information is enthusiastic but not very fulsome in English - though there are many more pages and much more text in the Greek language version. The URL for the English language version is http://www.mani.org.gr/en/ the Greek version is at http://www.mani.org.gr/
Panayiotis Katsafados, who has written a book on the castles of Mani, has now launched a fascinating website about Mani which actively invites contributions on the history and folklore of Mani. It's at http://www.psfkatsafados.gr/index.htm The erudite text is in both Greek and English.
As mentioned a bit above, Mat Dean's annual english language magazine Inside Mani has a website at http://www.insidemani.gr
There is a 45 minute video of Mani which is on sale (in both German and English versions) in local stores in Stoupa. Called 'Mani: Land of Stones and Towers' it was professionally produced by Jochen Schmidt-Petersen and is a good overview of the peninsula and aide memoir for returning tourists with some fascinating diversions on olive oil production. Jochen can be contacted at JPS-Film, Bäckerstrasse 10, 82288, Kottgeisering, Germany.
Histories of the Mani and the Peloponnese
Dora Eliopoulou Rogan
Mani: Monuments and History Lycabettus Press, Athens, 1976.
Rogan's book, published in Athens in English is long out of print. It is a thorough history and gazetteer of the area from prehistoric times until the early twentieth century and has fulsome lists of churches and archaeological sites. It doesn't set out to be a guide and gives no directions and the maps are pretty unspecific - what Greek map isn't? In the intervening period it is obvious that studies have progressed and some churches are wrongly ascribed to the Post Byzantine period (i.e. Soter in Langada which was then covered in plaster) and there are many completely missing from her long list. However, these are minor cavils, this work is a vital guide for anyone interested in the history of the Mani and has an excellent section on the fresco painting styles and the prime examples to visit. Dr Iliopoulou Rogan (niece of Edward Eliopoulous) is now a respected modern art critic who specialises in Greek women artists.
Melissa Publications. Athens.1992
An architect and ethnologist, Saitas is a serious academic researcher with the Neo-Hellenic Institute in Athens and has produced this superb volume on the later secular buildings of the Mani with special attention paid to the tower houses. The text has been translated into lucid and elegant academic English (it is published in three separate language editions: Greek, German and English). Fulsomely illustrated with photographs, reproductions of old prints and superb drawings, maps and diagrams of the major sites this is a volume packed with information on the architecture and history of the whole Mani. Easy to get hold of in Greece this unfortunately doesn't appear on the list of Melissa publications available in the UK but can be obtained from specialist bookshops or via Melissa's web site.
Settlements of Mani
Network of Mani Museums
Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Kapon Editions.2004. ISBN 960 214 414 9
This multi-authored volume is on sale at the two extant museums in the Mani Network (Kardamili and Areopoli), I've not seen it any bookshops elsewhere, which is a bit of a missed sales opportunity, especially as both museums are closed for half the year.
It's an excellent overview of Mani history, interpreting the evidence of the settlements, buildings, castles, threshing floors, wells and mills of this fascinating area. Most of the authors are either members of the local Ephoria of Byzantine & post-Byzantine Archaeaology (the 5th in Sparta and 26th in Kalamata) or Athens based experts on the subject. The book is available in either Greek or English (a fine translation by David Hardy) and is fulsomely illustrated with photographs and maps. I have disagreements with some of the conclusions, but then I would, wouldn't I? But overall this is the best text to explain the human landscape of Mani in print.
Dimos N. Mexis
I Mani kai oi Maniates: themata gia tin istoria tous, ti loagraphia kai tin techni
Athens. Vivliopoleion tis Estias. 1977.
A long (600+ pages) and academically sound Greek history of Mani up until 1821 - the title means The Mani and the Maniates. I've only dipped into the pages of my copy firmly clutching a dictionary. Obviously some of the debates have moved on in the intervening decades but, if you can read Greek, this appears the best and most thorough general history and is highly respected, though I have been told that Mexis, of Albanian descent, was overly interested in the influence of the Alvani on Mani - in which case he'd be cheered to know that much of the present day worker economy/sweated labour of Mani is, to a significant degree, driven by them. The bibliography is extremely all encompassing, although the accuracy of the English language entries is rather hit and miss. As far as I know long out of print though it occasionaly turns up secondhand. There are copies in the UK's British Library and Birmingham University Library where due to the arcane rules of transliteration in catalogues Dimos Mexis is Demos Mexes and the title appears as E Mani kai oi Maniates.
N.B. Good news. The Mexis history has now been translated into English (sometimes a bit literal but generally fine) by John Antonakis, as of 2006 - available via Amazon etc, etc. Mani and the Maniates. ISBN 1425922333
Ta Kastra tis Mainis
Athens. 1992 ISBN 960 220 265 4
A sound and thorough scholarly Greek take on the castles of Mesa Mani with particular attention paid to Tigani and the archaeological remains on the Ano Poula ridge above Kipoula which Katsafados tends to identify with Grand Magne. I can't pretend that with my ashamedly low level of Greek that I have read the entirety of the book but it is obvious that a great deal of research in libraries and an assiduous level of field-work on the spot in Mesa Mani has gone into it. I've since had the privilege of being taken round Tigani and two different areas of Ano Poula by Panayiotis and to be able to muse and converse, in robust though invariably amicable terms on his (and my) theories in situ. Panayiotis Katsafados revisits the debate in his recently (2004) launched website on the history and traditions of Mani. http://www.psfkatsafados.gr/index.htm which is both intellectualy and visually a treat to the mind and eye.
Takis Katsafados has also produced a smaller publication Mani: Mezapos i omiriki Messi. Athens 1994. ISBN 9608590000. The title translates as Mezapos, Homer's Messa and the text, maps and photos trace the clues that point to that village being the site of ancient Messa.
Plethysmos kai oikismoi tes Manes, 15os-19os aionas
Ioannina: Panepistemio Ioanninon, 1995. ISBN 960 233 027 9
An exhaustive (701 pages) study of population and settlement in Mani from 1400- 1900 this volume is stuffed full of practically every census, survey and description of Mani over those centuries. Based on the author's doctoral thesis it interprets the shifts in population and the rise and fall of various locations over the period. It's particulary useful for tracking the changes in names of places and villages in Mani and Vardounia. In Greek though non-Greek sources and names are kept in their original language and alphabet. Komes has also published a volume concentrating on the period of the Venetian occupation of Mani
Venetika katasticha Manes, Bardounias : arches 18ou aiona : tekmeria oikonomias & historikes demographias
Athens : Hellenika Grammata, 1998.
Nadia C. Seremetakis
The Last Word: Death Divination and Gender in the Deep Mani
University of Chicago Press. 1991. ISBN 0226748766 (paperback)
Mentioned both in Fermor and Greenhalgh/Eliopoulos is the Mani tradition of the moirolgias, the keening long dirges sung by women at funerals (the appalling, very loud and frankly scary American Greek"singer" Diamandas Galas is of Mani stock). Seremetakis, a Greek who has lived a large part of her life in America, is an academic anthropologist. This book is the fruit of long research she did into these traditions in the deep Mani. The results are a fascinating account of the lives of women in the deep Mani over the last century and the dreams, frustrations and intuition which drives them and the society they inhabit. Well worth reading if you wish to understand even a small amount of the emotional background to the austere foreground of the deep Mani. Although its language can stray into the area of "anthropological/academia speak" - for instance make instant sense of, "The anthropologist in search of an ethnographical discourse has to engage in the customary reciprocities for the production and reception of juridical narrative" ?!? - the style is generally understandable and involving. Seremetakis has published a number of similarly themed articles, the book is in print as of 2003.
…a slightly more recent take on the anthropological and societal aspects of Mani is Alexakis' book (in Greek)
Eleuth. P. Alexakis
Mani: Geni kai Oikogeneia (Alexakis' own trans. Mani: The Clans and the Family)
Trochalia. Athens. 1998.
I've only recently browsed this briefly in Cambridge University Library, though I've seen it for sale in Mani bookshops, and can't therefore comment on his findings except to say that his English language summary tends to confirm what we know of Maniat society. The Exo Mani is exogamous and stratified; the Mesa Mani endogamous and, if, superficially, egalitarian extremely quarrelsome. The bibliography appears pretty comprehensive in the social/anthropogical area.
The real Zorbas and Nikos Kazantzakis
Amsterdam. Hakkert.1978. (trans. Lewis A. Richards)
Iannis Anapliotes went to Stoupa in the 1950s and researched the true story of foreman, Giorgios Zorbas, and owner, Nikos Kazantzakis, of a small lignite mine in the cliffs between that village and Proastio in 1917. The location was switched to Crete - Kazantzakis' birthplace, when he came to write the classic novel 'Zorba the Greek' a quarter of a century later - but the landscape is that of the Exo Mani and Giorgios Zorbas (Alexis in the novel) was originally from Macedonia - and was therefore, strictly speaking, not born a Greek national at all (This was not uncommon at that time - in fact Kazantzakis himself was born in Crete in 1885 - at the time an Ottoman territory, and, in truth, the Greek title of the 1946 novel, Vios kai politeia tou Alexi Zorba should be translated as "The Life and Times of Alexis Zorba"). Giorgios Zorbas was every bit as colourful in real life as the novel suggests whereas Kazantzakis was very much the cerebral 'Boss', more bothered with dreaming up philosophy than running a mine. In fact what exactly the writer was doing running a mine isn't at all clear or characteristic, until one learns that mining - being of national importance during the First World War - meant that Kazantzakis managed to avoid conscription into the Greek Army.
Anapliotes' book was originally published in Greek, in Athens in 1960. This English translation claims to have cut much of Anapliotes' verbiage but even so there are still far too many overblown purple passages where Anapliotes waxes lyrical on the landscape, the people, the myths and the soul of Greece and Mani without really saying very much. That said there are some nice insights into everyday life in early 20th century Stoupa.
Byzantine and Medieval Greece: Churches, Castles and Art. John Murray. London, 1991. ISBN 0-7195-4725-3
A guide to the medieval sites of mainland Greece. Hetherington gives a clear and concise history of medieval Greece and then an alphabetical gazetteer of sites. There are maps but they are not of much use and the dots - signifying the locations - are sometimes wildly wide of the actual mark. However he gives painstaking directions, accurate and discerning descriptions and although he tries to be objective his enthusiasm shines through. There is a long section devoted to the Mani - although he does not attempt to be comprehensive and selects sites judiciously. Out of print but often appears in secondhand bookshops.
Dr. Hetherington has (July 2001) published a companion volume to the above which covers the Byzantine and Medieval sites of the Greek islands, entitled The Greek Islands: Guide to the Byzantine and Medieval Buildings and their Art. ISBN 1899163689. Highly recommended but obviously not, directly, pertinent to Mani.
Die Messenische Mani: Ein Studie zum Wandel in der Peripherie Griechenlands (The Messenian Mani: A study of Change in the Periphery of Greece). Freie Universitat Berlin Dissertation 1989.
Dietrich Reimer Verlag ISBN 3 496 00372 3
Peter Hartleb is an anthropological geographer and this book is the fruit of his researches during the middle 1980s. Although the book is perforce academic it is worth digging out of a research library (The British Library has a copy and I think it's still available in Germany) for the relatively contemporary portrait of the area and the host of minor details one can garner from its pages. Especially useful is his in-depth study of Proastio. The study concentrates on the area from Kardamili down as far as Agios Nikon - in other words the heart of the Outer Mani. Hartleb's main thesis is that, in the period he was researching, whereas the coastal settlements such as Kardamili and Stoupa were thriving those on the plateau above were stagnant and some of the higher villages were in steep decline. During a very pleasant morning strolling through Kardamili chatting with Peter he admitted that many of the villages he thought were doomed to extinction have been saved by the tourists and ex-patriot buyers of houses - though we agreed this could be a mixed blessing. And we've since looked down on the olive groves below Pirgos in Exo Mani and despaired at the number of villas and appartments springing up.
Written in clear German there are short (very short) summaries in English and Greek.
Settlement in the Mani peninsular: A study in historical geography.
Unpublished PhD. Thesis. University of Southampton. 1975.
Malcolm Wagstaff was Professor of Geography at Southampton University until 2000 and this, his doctoral thesis, is a fine study of settlement patterns in the Mesa Mani - most of the research was done in-situ in the 1960s. Like most theses there are moments, especially with exposition of complicated models for settlement development when it may baffle the non-academic reader - but generally this is a well written and extremely thorough overview of the area. It can, unfortunately, only be referred to at the Hartley Library at the University of Southampton.
Prof. Wagstaff has written a large number of other studies on the historical geography of the Peloponnese which are available in scholarly journals. The following are the most relevant to Mani and see also the Saitas edited volume for an article on the British agent in the Morea during the Napoleonic wars J. P. Morier.
A small coastal town in southern Greece: its evolution and present condition.
Town Planning Review 37: pp 255-270. 1967.
Malcolm Wagstaff was based in Githion during his sixties doctoral research and this was his account of the historical development of this bustling little port on the eastern shore of the Mani peninsula.
The Economy of the Mani Peninsula (Greece) in the Eighteenth Century
Balkan Studies. Vol 6. Part 2. pp 295 - 304. 1965.
Settlements in the South Central Peloponnisos, c.1618
in Carter, F. An Historical Geography of the Balkans. Academic Press. London. 1977. pp 197-238
A close look at the surveys and census records of the Mani by the agents of Charles Duc de Nevers and the Venetians in the 17th century. In part based on the above thesis.
War and Settlement Desertion in the Morea 1685 - 1830
Trans. of Inst. of British Geographers. n.s.3. 1978. pp. 295-308.
Colonel Leake in Lakonia
in J.M. Sanders (ed). Philolakon: Lakonian Studies in honour of Hector Catling. British School of Athens. 1992.
A concise but excellent overview of one of the great travellers in Mani, William Martin Leake. Malcolm is presently working on a full biography of Leake.
Change in the agriculture of the Mani 1960/62 - 1992/93
Lakonikai Spoudai. 2000. pp 127-174
Wagstaff took the opportunity whilst working on another research project in the Peloponnese to revisit his early sixties work on Maniate agriculture. In this article he demonstrates how subsistence crops such as wheat have almost totally disappeared and Olive cultivation and herding - neither instrinsically labour intensive - have come to dominate the region.
Peter S. Allen
Aspida: A depopulated Maniat Community
in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Volume 268. Regional variation in modern Greece and Cyprus: Towards a perspective on the ethnology of Greece. Muriel Dimen & Ernestine Friedl (eds). 1976. pp. 168-198.
'Aspida' was Allen's pseudonym for Skoutari (to shield its identity) on the eastern coast of Mani. His detailed and fascinating anthropological study is an excellent snapshot of the village in the early seventies. Allen returned there twenty years later and his report on the changes that had occured, both physical and mentally on the community are published online in the Rhode Island College site. Click here to go there. Much has changed since the early seventies, when there were no cars, merely a few motor-cycles, electricty had only arrived in 1968 and there was only one, communal, telephone and most of the economy was based on self-sufficiency and communal barter. But one gets the impression that certain things move more slowly in Greece, and particularly in Mani and despite the acceleration of surface change, and from my personal observations of, admittedly, other Maniat communities, several of Skoutari's underlying societal patterns are still based on similar premises as those of 35 years ago.
… adjacent to this article in the very same volume of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (pp. 199-206) is…
John N. Andromedas
Maniat folk culture and the ethnic mosaic in the southeast Peloponnese
A brief account of the culture of Mani. When the research was done (the 1960s) its conclusions would have been a fairly radical summation of our knowledge of Maniat society. Today it is merely a summation of our knowledge of Maniat society.
Bon was a researcher at the L'Ecole Francaise d'Athenes in the inter war period and from his researches of that time he produced two major historical studies and one slight but delightful volume of photographs (from 1933 with a forward by Fernand Chapouthier called "En Grece" - there was a second volume in 1938). The major works are:-
Le Morée Franque (The Frankish Morea) Paris, 1968
Obviously a work of painstaking research this massive two volume tome is a towering edifice of scholarship on the Frankish period of Peloponnesian history. He may have been overtaken in some details, and historians are wont to throw over the interpretations of their predecessors. But I doubt if anyone will surpass the eye for detail and sheer breadth of coverage demonstrated by this book. Volume One is the text and is hardly bed time reading weighing in rather heavily. Volume Two is the supporting photographs and maps and is equally thorough. The photos make fascinating documents not just of the sites they record but also of the Greece of the 1930s. Stoupa, for example, is a deserted beach with two houses in the background.
Obviously totally opaque to anyone who cannot read French the text is extremely clear if you have some school French and a good dictionary (rather like myself). However it is not a riveting read. The sheer scope of the project negates against a flowing narrative. Also Bon was a very circumspect scholar and without firm evidence is unlikely to make a speculation. Somehow in the sheer detail the poetry of the Frankish period has got lost. There's not a huge amount on the Mani probably because the Franks weren't there for very long and that has to be searched for in the index but no very serious Mani researcher should pass up a chance to dip into its pages.
Long out of print and rarely seen on the second hand market (and then it's cripplingly expensive). There are copies in good research libraries.
Le Peloponese Byzantine Jus'qua 1204 (The Byzantine Peloponnese until 1204). Paris 1938
In contrast to his later magnum opus on the Frankish period Bon's history of the Byzantine Empire's long struggle to control the Peloponnese is short and reasonably vivid. The Mani plays a relatively large part in the narrative. Long, long out of print you'll have delve into research libraries for this volume which naturally is in French but which is written in clear uncomplicated language.
Le Peloponnese du IVe au VIII siecle: changements et persistances. Paris. Publications de la Sorbonne. Serie Byzantina Sorbonensia 15. 1997.
The latest thinking on the problematic early centuries of Byzantine rule by a celebrated Byzantinist. In French.
This has been supplemented by Avramea's excellent article in a the first volume of a festschriften. This is a concise and scholarly rounding up of all the various strands of evidence and opinion for the history of Mani in the Byzantine period.
Le Magne Byzantin: Problemes d'histoire et de topographie
in - Eupsychia: mélanges offerts a Helene Ahrweiler
Publications de la Sorbonne. Série Byzantina Sorbonensia; 16. 1998.
The British School at Athens was one of the first group of archaeologists to systematically explore Mani. Mostly this was individuals deciding to vear off from the main focus of the BSA's Laconia Survey which did stirling work in excavating ancient sites at Sparta and in the Evrotas valley on the eastern side of the Taygetus. Most of their findings appear in the pre-World War One volumes of the Annual of the BSA… viz…
Annual of the British School at Athens (10) 1903-1904 pp. 158 ff.
Edward Forster was one of the first of the members of the BSA to forge a trail off into Mani. At that time most of Mani was in Lakonia, whereas today the dividing line is south of Ag. Nikon and along the watershed of the Taygetus. Therefore Forster's South-western Laconia, in his own words, 'extends from Pyrgos on the south some eight kilometres south of Areopolis, to Kalamata'.
Laconia III. Thalamae
Annual of the British School at Athens (11) 1904-1905 pp. 124-136
Guy Dickins (often mis-transcribed as Dickens or Dicken) dug up various bits of Koutifari (present day Thalames) looking for traces of an ancient site of the town of Thalamae and the dream oracle of Ino-Pasiphae as listed by Pausanius. His findings were that the shrine complex was probably above the two wells on the roadside as one drives through present day Thalames, and the site has probably been occupied constantly since.
Laconia: Medieval Fortresses
Annual of the British School at Athens (12) 1905-1906 pp.259-276
Traquair, (1874-1952), who later became Professor of Architectural History at McGill University in Canada, was one of the first serious academic researchers to describe the monuments of Mani. He was part of a much larger British survey of the ancient sites of Lakonia and, in particular, Sparta. Researchers from this early Lakonia study were mainly concerned with excavating Sparta but individually or in pairs they travelled around the area recording their discoveries.A letter to The Times of February 6th 1906 from the Chairman of the Managing Committee of the British School At Athens, George Macmillan, explained, 'Serious attention will be given also to the remains of the Byzantine and Frankish periods, in which the province of Laconia is so rich. For this work the committee have secured the services of an able architect, Mr. Ramsay Traquair, of Edinburgh'. This paper looks at the castles of the area including Passavas and other sites in Lakonia such as Geraki. Available in research libraries.
Arthur M. Woodward
Taenarum and Southern Maina
Annual of the British School at Athens. (13) 1906-1907. pp.238 -267
Woodward travelled the area southward from "an imaginary line drawn across the peninsula from Areopolis on the west to Skutari on the east coast", in April 1907. He was mainly concerned with the remains of the ancient sites dotted around the coastline.
H. A. Ormerod
Bardounia and North Eastern Maina
Annual of the British School at Athens (16) 1909 - 1910. pp. 62-72
A short survey from before the First World War of this north eastern part of Mani mainly looking at the scattered ancient remains.
R. Hope Simpson
Identifying a Mycenaean State
Annual of the British School at Athens. 52. 1957. pp 230-259.
H. Waterhouse and R. Hope Simpson
Prehistoric Laconia: Part II
Annual of the British School at Athens. 56. 1961. pp.114-175 + plates 18-29
Richard Hope Simpson and Helen Waterhouse were part of the Lakonia survey in the '50s and in a variety of papers described the ancient pre-historic ruins of the area. Although the observations are mainly concerned with very early pre-Hellenic Greek sites there are digressions on Pausanius and guesses at medieval and Venetian archaeological remains in the area. The study on 'Identifying a Mycenaean State' covers the Outer Mani from Thalames to Kalamata - plus much on Messenia as a whole. Other "installments" followed. The most relevant to Mani studies is 'Prehistoric Laconia II' which covers the Mesa Mani.
R. Hope Simpson
The seven cities offered by Agamemnon to Achilles
Annual of the British School at Athens. 61. 1966. pp.113-131 (+ plates 23-26)
A series of notes revising Hope Simpson's views on ancient remains in Messenia regarding the likely topographical locations of the cities listed in the Iliad ix.149 ff., 291 ff.
Hope Simpson also commented on explorations he had made with William A. McDonald on sites in Messenia in two articles for the American Journal of Archaeology in the 1961 (p.255 ff.) and 1969 (p.161 ff.) volumes. These include some observations on sites in the northern Exo Mani.
Castles of the Morea. Gennadeion Monograph 4. Princeton. 1953.
Andrews (1924-1989) was lucky enough to be given a Fulbright Scholarship to study the Venetian Castles of the Peloponnese just after the Second World War where he'd served in the US Army in Italy. Taking as his starting point the detailed maps and sketches of the Venetian mapmaker Coronnelli drawn up during the short lived occupation of the Morea by Venice at the turn of the 17th/18th centuries, Andrews' book is a detailed exploration of most of the major fortresses which were either built by or re-occupied by the Venetians in the Morea. His descriptions are extremely thorough with good plans and black white photographs. Reprinted in 1978 as a Gennadeion Monograph by Hakkert, Amsterdam. ISBN 9025607942. It is still available (at a rather inflated cost) from specialist bookshops, or can be found in research libraries. Andrews became totally immersed in Greece and lived there for most of the rest of his life, becoming a Greek national in 1975. Writing journalism and an acclaimed book on Athens as well as poems castigating the Colonel's regime. He tragically died in 1989 while swimming alone out to a remote seal colony off the coast of Kithera.
The good news is that 'Castles of the Morea' was re-published in 2007. There's a new introduction by Glenn R. Bugh and the maps and plans are now in full colour
American School of Classical Studies at Athens,U.S.; Rev. Ed edition 2006. ISBN 978-0876614068
The Flight of Ikaros. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1959 (Penguin edition.1984. ISBN 0140095314)
This extremely personal adjunct to the academic tome listed above is a fascinating and moving account of Kevin Andrews' experiences as he toured the Peloponnese for his researches for Castles of the Morea. The Greek Civil War was raging while he was in the area of the Taygetus (he was mainly based on the other side in Mistra but he visited Mani and describes the paranoid state of the area) and he evokes the anguish and savagery of that sad conflict which has left numerous psychological scars on the local psyche. Unfortunately out of print it is well worth hunting out a secondhand copy.
Mattias Natan Valmin
Etudes topographiques sur La Messénie ancienne.
Valmin (1898-1968) was a Swedish archaeologist who was part of the Swedish Messenia Survey of the 1930s. This was basically a transcript of his French doctoral thesis in which he theorised on the ancient past and topography of Messenia. The section where he works on parts of the Exo Mani are in chapter E (Yup, E - crazy Nordics obviously don't like numbering their chapters) 'Le Magne de Nord'. He mainly looks at the sites around Zarnata/Kambos, Kardamili, Stoupa/Leftro and was the first person to ascribe the monastery of Profitis Ilias in Gaitses villages as being ancient Brinda. Written, thankfully (though, strangely, I can count up to twelve in Swedish - don't ask…), in French. You'll need a research library for this one.
Mediaeval Greece. Yale University Press, New Haven/London, 1981. ISBN 0-300-024215
Greek medieval history is a minefield of ever-changing complexity with a baffling variety of small kingdoms, baronetcies and despotates littering the landscape. Cheetham's book is as clear a narrative picture of the era as possible but as with much medieval history it tends to default to an ever complicated litany of marriages, battles, family trees and usurpations. Such a straightforward storytelling - births and battles - approach is rare nowadays.
The Franks in the Aegean. Longman. 1995. ISBN 0 582 05139 8 (paperback)
A more modern look at the Frankish period in Greek history. Lock's book is a conflation of all the latest research on this subject and naturally deals greatly with the Peloponnese and therefore with the Mani. The book is academically thorough and covers far more of the social and economic slants on the story than Cheetham. Clearly written with the academic in mind the non specialist will still find much to interest them including a helpful chronology of medieval Greece.
Franks and Local Population - Some observations on the case of the Mani
Etudes Balkaniques No. 4. 1987 pp. 73-79.
Many historians are of the opinion that foreign incursions into Mani were rare and short lived. Ilieva, a Bulgarian historian is less sure. Her thesis, which is presented in a broader picture in her volume Frankish Morea (1205-1262) Socio-cultural Interaction between the Franks and the local population. Athens. 1991, is that the Mani is an area that has been as open to foreign influence as any other in the Peloponnese.
John C. Alexander
Brigandage and Public Order in the Morea 1685-1806
Alexander's study of the role of the Klephts in Peloponnese history is a sober and unromantic account of a period which has received far too much uncritical and romantic blather by hagiographers of those unruly persons. Although he assumes prior knowledge of terms such as 'Armatoli' and slips in much Turkish nomenclature which can confuse, this is a good account not only of the Klephts of the Morea and the Turkish and Venetian responses to them but the vital role of Mani as a haven for those dodging or fleeing from the retribution of the law.
Out of print but available in some academic research libraries.
Piracy in the Levant (1827 - 28): Selected from the papers of Admiral Sir Edward Codrington.
Publications of the Navy Records Society No.72. London. 1934.
This should really be in the section on foreign travellers to Mani - but the editorial by Cmdr. Pitcairn Jones shoves it into this section. Based on papers in the possession of Admiral Codrington (under whose name it can appear in library catalogues) who commanded the British fleet in Greek waters during the Greek War of Independence. These are fascinating documents, a mixture of Captains' reports, dispatches and letters to and from Greek leaders, not all of which concern the Mani. They chart the extremely volatile situation in the area during a period when piracy, always a favourite pastime of the Maniates, got out of hand due to the blurring of legal boundaries in wartime. The British were nominally neutral and their exasperation with the endemic piracy in the Levant is clear from these pages. The volume also contains translations of letters from Iannis Mavromichalis and other Greeks to the British.
For a web site which gives further details on the actions of HMS Zebra and Pelican off Kardamili see the relevant sections of Michael Phillips' Ships of the Old Navy site.
Mani. A Cultural Itinerary 1993-1994. Travellers to the Mani: 15th-19thc. Institute for Neohellenic Research. 1993. ISBN 960-7094-20-4
A companion to and catalogue of an exhibition mounted in the Historical Ethnological Museum of Mani at the Kranae Tower Githeion this is a fascinating and well produced tome which covers a variety of topics concerning the later culture of the Mani. The main emphasis is on the many western travellers who visited the Mani throughout the centuries and their observations on the area. Although the exhibition is advertised as being there from July 1993 to December 1994 it appears to be on permanent display (although you sometimes have to play "hunt the attendant" to buy a ticket) and the book is still available for purchase. Bilingual Greek/English text and many illustrations.
Ed. Yiannis Saitas
Mani: Temoignages sur l'espace et la société. Voyageurs et expeditions scientifiques (XVe - XIXe s.)
Institute for Neohellenic Research. Athens. 1996. ISBN 9607094689
A collection of articles from a Colloquium held at Limeni in November 1993. Most are in Greek but have French summaries. Those in French have Greek summaries. There are two articles in English including one by Prof. J.M. Wagstaff on the early 19th century account of Mani by the British agent J. P. Morier. A wide-ranging and interesting collection of papers on the observations of foreigners on the Mani between the 15th and 19th centuries.
Castles and Fortresses of Greece Vol II
Efstathiadis & Sons. Athens 1982.
This three volume series covers in exhaustive detail the myriad castles of Greece - volume two covers Mani. Its rambling discourse is translated by his son Stephen into awkward dense English and arranged in a manner which is opaque to the point of annoyance - the pictures (the photos are often of an appalling printed quality) for example, are never - ever - adjacent to the text they refer to and the index is a nightmare. These cavils as to its readability aside it is a useful compendium of information and often covers minor sites ignored by other writers. I suspect the series (Vol 1. covers Northern Greece, Vol 3. The Islands) may well be out of print.
Edwin Horlington (ed.)
Tell them we were here (Volumes I and II)
Edlington Press, Vol 1 1991. ISBN 0951839306, Vol 2 1998. 0951839314
These volumes of collected reminiscences of allied soldiers caught up in the Greek campaign of 1941 are fascinating documents about that doomed episode. Much concerns the trials and tribulations of the ordinary soldier rather than the officers (who at the battle and evacuation at Kalamata appear to have been rather more eager than was necessary to leg it onto the nearest ship out, rather than look after their troops). Many troops evacuated from ports down the Mani peninsula. These separate volumes are available from Edwin Horlington, President of The Brotherhood of Veterans of the Greek Campaign 1940-41, 163 Walton Road, Walton-on-Naze. Essex CO14 8NE. UK. Tel. 01255-677178.
Regarding churches and the like
Laconia III: the churches of Western Mani
Annual of the British School at Athens 15. 1908-1909
This is the first survey of churches in Mani and is still one of the bedrocks of later studies. In fact Traquair spent very little time in Mani; once in 1906 and again in 1909 - one can surmise that it was hardly easy even in the early twentieth century to travel around the area - but he lists some of the most significant sites and took educated guesses to the dating of the buildings. He was mainly interested in the architecture and generally only mentions wall paintings as an aside. Apart from the usual significant sites in the Mesa Mani he visited the area around Thalames, Nomitsis, Platsa and Langada in Exo Mani and briefly mentions the Post Byzantine churches in the Kardamili area.
From 5-11 May 1910 R. M. Dawkins, one of the great English eccentrics of Greek studies, travelled independently to Mani to look at and 'correct' the inscriptions Traquair had identified, obviously Traquair's Greek was, at least in Dawkins' opinion, not his forté. Dawkins was most miffed that he couldn't hire a mule at Githion and had to walk all day long to Areopolis where he stayed in a dirty hotel. He wrote that night, 'Demand get mule for tomorrow'. He then went south to Kitta where he stayed with a local schoolmaster before travelling north through Exo Mani and getting a steamer from Kardamili to Kalamata. Dawkins was a dialect expert and his archive, at the University of Oxford, includes his notebook for the trip which concentrates on his jottings on this subject. Put simply - the people of the Mesa Mani from Areopolis south had a distinct dialect, whereas the northern littorals were more like the everyday speech of the rest of the Peloponnese. Unfortunately not much else attracted enough of Dawkins' attention to write down and apart from the observation that the oleanders on the boulders by the shore at Kardamili were very pretty (they still are today in May and June) we learn precious little about Mani in the early part of the 20th century. Oh … and his handwriting was awful!
Byzantine Architecture in Mani
Annual of the British School at Athens. 33. 1933. pp 137-162.
Megaw drew on the work of Traquair and made an in depth study of some of the Mesa Mani churches looking at their architectural details and construction. Thus he compiled a dating yardstick which is still used to this day. Like Traquair he concentrated on architecture rather than painting. He refers to churches in Exo Mani but doesn't appear to have visited them. In part this was part of his larger interest which was to create a chronology of medieval Greek church building and followed his earlier paper.
The chronology of some Middle-Byzantine churches. Annual of the British School at Athens. 32. 1932. pp. 90-130.
Both can be found in academic research libraries.
Kyriakos D. Kasses (or Kassis depending on your transliteration)
Anthi tes Petras: sto choro tou statikou chronou, etoi oikogeneies kai ekklesies sten Mane etc. etc.
Athens. Ichor. 1990 (out of print but in major academic libraries in UK)
(v.rough translation :- Flowers of the Stones: Places and History of Families and Churches in Mani)
I had promised myself I wouldn't include any Greek language books in this bibliography but this one had to be listed. Kassis is a self proclaimed "poet and artist" (though his graphical skills are enthusiastic if not dreadfully felicitous - his poetry I can't vouch for) and keen, not to say obsessive, historian of Mani. He has published numerous books in Greek on, mainly, the Mesa Mani looking at customs and folklore including a short history translated into, reputedly, incomprehensible English (I've since browsed it - it is). This huge (517 pages) tome is a dissertation on the churches of both Upper and Lower Mani complete with fulsome photographs (of varied quality and that inimitable slightly wonky Greek printing quality of 20 years ago) and it purports to list every church in the area. Yes, every church. It is the trainspotters' guide to Mani churches - but there are a few drawbacks.
If you can't read Greek you're stuffed (or rather it's a slog with a dictionary). His descriptions are sometimes short and are often imprecise as to locations - he's fond of vague directions such as "close to" or "nearby" or merely "in" when he has listed tens of churches in one village. He does include maps - but these are drawn and written in his own fair hand (a manic scribble) and are up there with the best of Hellenic cartography - in other words fairly useless. Finally the damned thing is out of print. All in all irritating but invaluable (if like me you're a fellow obsessive).
Kassis' brother, Michalis, a sculptor, is building a small museum about Mani in Paliros to the south of Porto Kaiyo in the Deep Mani. As far as I can tell it is yet to open - there is a website, in Greek. Click here to go there.
The Painters Manual of Dionysius of Fourna
Paul Hetherington (translator). Sagittarius Press. London.1977. ISBN 095031630x
Dionysius of Fourna was a painter/monk who lived from c. 1670 - c.1745. His is the only manual for church painters to be passed down through the ages. It covers not just how to paint frescos - pigments, techniques etc. - but also what to paint and where. Hetherington's translation is exemplary and it is a great help to identifying paintings but the book is not dreadfully easy to navigate and it is unlikely one would ever wish to read it from cover to cover. A good illustrated guide to post- Byzantine Orthodox iconography would be a godsend. Out of print but in good academic libraries and sometimes secondhand copies surface.
Karin M. Skawran
The Development of Middle Byzantine Fresco Painting in Greece
University of South Africa. 1982. ISBN 0 86981 223 8
An academic discourse on medieval church painting. This is a fine appraisal and history of the themes and schemes of Byzantine iconography. Although it covers much of Greece outside Mani it covers the significant Mesa Mani sites. Apart from the excellent overview it gives details on Ag. Procopius, Ag. Panteleimon, Ano Boulari, Ag. Stratigos, also Ano Boulari, Ag. Theodori, Kafiona. Episkopi and Trissakia and fits them into the historical development of painting styles. Fulsome if black & white photographic illustrations. Out of print but available in academic libraries.
Nikolaos V Drandakis (N.B. often transliterated in Library catalogues as Drandakes)
Vizantines toichographies tes Mesa Manes (rough trans. Byzantine Painting and Decoration of the Deep Mani). Athens. Archaiologikes Hetaireias: ar. 141. 1995. ISBN. 9607036409
Drandakis (1915-2004) was the doyen of Mani church studies. It appears that he joined the work of Orlandos at Mistra in the '50s and asked if he could be given one of the churches at that site for study. Orlandos, who had the sinecures for practically every significant site in Greece at the time decided to keep Mistra for himself and sent Drandakis off to the wilds of Mani, perhaps not realising the deep vein of riches he was in fact offering the incomer.
This huge volume is the fruit of years of research. He concentrates on the most significant sites in Mesa Mani such as those at Ano Boulari and many others. Available in Greece at a thumping £80 it is naturally in Greek but has a short French summaries on each of the chosen churches. Numerous, mainly black and white, and some colour photographs and excellent diagrams of the churches. There was an earlier edition in 1964 which covered fewer churches. Drandakis and his students (now mostly eminent academics themselves, I've met a few of them…) have written many scholarly papers on the area. viz.
Drandakes with Eleni Dori, Viktoria Kepetzi and Maria Konstantoudaki
Erevna Stin Kato Mani (trans. Researches in the Lower Mani)
Athens 1993. Athens Archaelogical Etaireias No. 130. ISBN 960703614x
In Greek, but a fulsome listing and description of the churches of the Lower (Kato) Mani - the area between Areopoli and Githeon and a small way down the eastern 'sunward' coast (as far as Skoutari). With a large section of black & white photographs.
Erevnai eis tin Messiniaki Mani (Researches in Messenian Mani)
Praktika tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetairias. 1976. pp.213-252
Drandakis with S. Kalopisi & M. Panagiotidi
Erevna sti Messiniaki Mani
Praktika tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetairias. 1980. pp. 188-246
Drandakis with E. Dori, S. Kalopisi, V. Kepetzi and M. Panagiotidi
Erevna sti Mani
Praktika tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetairias. 1981. pp. 449-578
The above three lengthy articles in the scholarly journal Praktika tes en Athenais Archaiologikes Hetairias cover a large number of churches in the Exo Mani. Don't quote me - but the 'Adouloti Mani' bookshop in Areopolis has produced a rather useful photocopied and bound compendium of these articles.
Drandakis. N. V.
Diklitos Stagrepistegos Naos Byzantion Chronion
AAA (Athens Annals of Archeaology). Vol 18.No.1. pp. 37-46. 1981.
An analysis of the twin church of Ag. Nikolaos and Ag. Iannis Prodromos at Stavropigio, Exo Mani.
O Sotiras tou Oitilou (The Church of the Saviour (Soter) at Oitylo)
Deltion Christianikes Archaelogikes Etaireias. 1995. pp. 79-88.
Drandakis has also recently published a large illustrated tome describing all the medieval carved marbles found in churches in Mani.
Byzantina Glypta Tis Manis
Athens Archaiologikes Hetaireias 2002. ISBN 9608145325
Although I've merely thumbed through it in the bookshop in Areopoli I can report it is in Greek with an English summary and is - again rather expensive at nearly €100.
The frescoes of the Church of St. Nicholas at Platsa in the Mani Athens. Bank of Attica. 1975.
Mouriki (d.1991) was the doyen of Byzantine painting studies and this excellent study of the church of Ag. Nikolaos at Kampinari, Platsa was published on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Bank of Attica. Translated into English by Brian de Jongh it is both fascinating and extremely well produced with a large number of colour and black & white photographs. Out of print and only available in major research libraries.
Die Wandmalereien des 15. Jahrhunderts in Ajios Nikolaos in Zarnata in Festschrift für Klaus Wessel.
Münchener Arbeiten Zur Kunstgeschichte und Archaologie Band 2.
Editio Maris. 1988. ISBN 3925801022
In German. A fine study of Ag. Nikolaos at Zarnata. Quite how Eleni Dori managed to puzzle out as much as she does about this church from the dreadful state of its repair, is a wonder.
Sharon E.J. Gerstel
Art and Identity in the Medieval Morea
in The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh.
Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Washington D.C. 2001. http://www.doaks.org/etexts.html
A study of the iconography of warrior saints in the southern Morea in the period of the Frankish domination in the first half of the 13th century. Her thesis is that there was a change from representing the warrior saints on foot to depicting them on horseback due to the influence of the Franks in the area. Covers churches in Mani and the Evrotas valley in Lakonia.
Le Judgement dernier inédit de l'église d'Agetria (Magne)
Jahrbuch der Osterreichischen Byzantinistik. 1982. Vol 32, No 5. pp.469-479
A study of the delightful cliff-top chapel of Agitria in the Cavo Grosso which makes comparisons and links between the medieval Last Judgement frescos there and those at Episkopi a few kilometres away.
Scholia stis toichographies tis ekklisias tou Agiou Ioannou tou Prodromo sti Megali Kastania Manis
Vivlioteki tis en Athinais archaiologikis etaireias. Athens 1982
A volume on the small but lovely chapel of St John the Baptist at Kastania. In Greek but with an English summary. A ferociously well documented piece of art history comparing and contrasting the frescos of this church with contemporay examples throughout the 12th and 13th century Byzantine world. This highbrow and painstaking dissection of (for example) the way in which the folds of clothing are depicted hardly makes the text accessible to the lay reader. Was still available in Mani summer of 2002.
With Faith And Fantasy: Ecclesiastical Woodcarvings of Western Taygetos/ Me Pisti Kai Fantasia: Ekklisiastika Chilogipta tou Ditikou Taygetou
Hellenic Ministry of Culture. 5th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities. Adam Editions. 2004. ISBN. 960 214 390 8
This catalogue (bi-lingual - Greek and English) was produced to accompany an exhibition I annoyingly missed in Kalamata's church of Ag. Giorgos July-Sept 2004. It describes the traditional 18th century carved iconostases of the area to the east and south east of Kalamata in the foothills of the high Taygetus. It lovingly describes the wonderful and highly imaginative wood carvings of many churches I know well. Both scholarly and a feast for the eye.
Charalambos Bouras (ed.)
Ekklesies sten Ellada meta ten Alose Various volumes spanning the last twenty years. Vol 5 has nothing on Mani but a paper on the church of Ag. Konstantinos & Eleni at Kalamata).Volume 6 was published in 2002 and although it has no papers on Mani churches it does have a rather good bibliography of writings on post-byzantine churches in Greece.
trans. Churches in Greece since the Fall (i.e. 1453-1850)
Ethniko Metsovio Polytechneio, Athens.
Again in Greek and frustratingly sans ISBNs until volume 5 and often even a mention of the series' editor Charalambos Bouras. These are extremely useful volumes which consist of various studies of post-Byzantine churches - a welcome thing as the things are thick on the ground and studies of the Turkokratia period are thin on the ground. Although some volumes have nothing pertinent to Mani there are some papers on our subject. Of particular use are the following. All are written in Greek (but in a nice clear typeface - which helps) are well illustrated and have short but informative summaries in English. Probably the earlier ones are out of print but available in a few academic libraries.
Marios Michailidis & Athina Christofidou
Ayios Spiridonas Kardamilis
Volume 2. 1982 pp. 299-310
trans. Aghios Spyridon at Kardamyli (Western Mani). A study of - surprise, surprise - Ag. Spiridon in Pano Kardamili.
O naos toi Ayioi Nikolaoi sto Proasteio tis Ditikis Manis
Volume 2. 1982 pp. 311-326
trans. The church of Aghios Nikolaos in Prasteion, Western Mani. The jewel of Proastio - the recent work on the outside walls of this church have confirmed Palantzas' conclusion in this paper that it was originally a Byzantine cross in square church that was extended in later centuries.
I didimi ekklisia ton Ayioi Vasileioi kai Spiridona sto Prasteio Ditikis Manis
Volume 2. 1982 pp. 327-336
trans. The (twin) church of Aghioi Vasileios and Spirydon in Prasteion Western Mani. Study of this small twin naved church on the eastern outskirts of Proastio.
Marios Michailidis & Athina Christofidou
Monastiria perioxis Kardamilis, Kapetanias ton Troupakidion-Mourtzinion
Volume 3. 1989 pp. 189-210
(translated as Monasteries from the region of Kardamyli, the Capetanate of the Troupakides-Mourtzinoi) A study of Lykaki, Sotiros, Ag.Sofia, Karaveli, Phaneromeni, Vaidenitsa and Samouil.
Bouras has recently written an extremely nice coffee table format tome for Melissa Publishing which covers the history and development of the architecture of Greek churches - both Byzantine and Post-Byzantine. There are fulsome, excellent colour photographs and it covers quite a number of Mani churches. It is in Greek. However I met Charalambos at the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies in London in the summer of 2006 and he informed me that an English translation was imminent.
Vyzantini kai metavyzantini architektoniki stin Ellada
Melissa Publishing. ISBN 960204229X
Travellers to Mani before the twentieth century
Much of our knowledge of Mani in the period bridging the late 18th and early 19th century is derived from the recollections and writings of western European travellers to Greece. Their observations are fascinating but are always through the distorting lens of their culture and upbringing - most were rich, young and highly educated in classical concerns. The Greeks for their part were equally fascinated by their visitors whom they generally tolerated, although they found the concept of travel for travel's sake baffling. Although they took with them vast amount of luggage their attempts to retain the comforts of home were often futile due to the generally poor infastructure of the Morea in the twilight of the Ottoman domination. One traveller in the Levant, not it must be admitted to Mani, a certain Edward Clarke described the experience thus,
"It may cool your ardour for exploring for when I think of the enthusiasm with which I once planned such a voyage, it seems as a dream that vanished with the moments of repose. Danger, fatigue, disease, filth, treachery, thirst, hunger, storms, rocks, assassins, these are the realities!"
An even earlier English traveller, Francis Vernon, did actually visit Mani in 1675. A letter from him to an unknown, though Reverend, gentleman, from Athens dated October 1675 wrote about his Greek journeys. As a postscript to the letter, and to 21st century ears quite shocking in its matter-of-factness, Vernon wrote, 'In the way betweene Lepanto and Salona, a daye's journey from Delphos, my companion died; one Sir Giles Eastcourt, a Wiltshire gentleman, who had been formerly of Oxford, I think of Edmund Hall. I have written to his friends to give them notice of what hath happened'. Vernon himself was killed later that year in Persia.
One finds quite a large amount of anti-Greek feeling in some of these writings. This attitude was in part due the expectations and assumptions these often arrogant young men brought with them. They had been educated to expect the contemporary Greeks to be the heirs to the traditions of Periclean Athens. The reality was often a shocking revelation. The fact that they encountered a population which had been oppressed for centuries by the stultifying and brutish Ottoman Empire seems not to have crossed many minds. Of the travellers only Byron and Leake seem to have grasped the full truth of the Greeks' condition - others were all too easily persuaded to put it down to inate weakness of character and breeding.
Robert Eisner's Travelers to an Antique Land. Univ. Michigan Press. 1993. ISBN 0472082205. is an overview of travel writing about Greece and highly recommended. Others are Terence Spencer, Fair Greece Sad Relic: Literary Philhellenism from Shakespeare to Byron. 1954. Reprinted 1973 Octagon Books. New York. This is more of a literary study of artistic reaction to Greece but is trenchant and stimulating. Hugh Tregaskis' book, Beyond the Grand Tour: The Levant Lunatics. London 1973. is a fair narrative of the various personalities who visited Greece in the early years of the 19th century but surprisingly fails to persuade the reader of the 'lunatics' part of his title (taken from a comment of Byron's to Hobhouse).
Recently published, and I've only just (August 2005) got round to buying a copy, is David Roessel's In Byron's Shadow: Modern Greece in the English and American Imagination. OUP. 2002. ISBN. 019516620. It's an excellent and exhaustive academic account and interpretation of the ways in which British and American writers have depicted Greece since the 1770 Orloff Rebellion to the present. I write 'exhaustive' as Roessel really has read practically every poem and novel and most travellers accounts which even briefly mention Greece - many of them turgidly fanciful pieces of writing which are best forgotten.
All the texts below are available in research libraries or sometimes, for a price, from second hand book dealers. I have listed a large number of travellers to Mani but by no means all of them, the list keeps on growing and it takes time to write them up …
Guide to Greece. Volume 2. Southern Greece. translated by Peter Levi. Penguin Books. 1971.
Levi's is the most easily available printed scholarly translation of this earliest of travel guides to the area and is in print. Pausanius was, it is thought, a doctor from, it is presumed, Magnesia in Asia Minor. He travelled around bits of Greece in the latter half of the 2nd century A.D. and from this experts infer that he had enough money to just, well, travel. An odd, or at least eccentric, pastime in the Roman Empire. His accounts of the 'cities' and sites of Mani are contained in the Lakonia section. Even then some of the ancient sites were beginning to fade back into the landscape and many of the sites he describes cannot be definitively ascribed to present day locations by modern experts - which leads to a fair bit of, occasionally amusing, academic infighting.
Peter Levi, a poet, scholar, archaeologist and writer, knew the Peloponnese intimately and was a long time friend and frequent guest of Paddy Leigh Fermor's at his house at Kalamitsi (Paddy wrote a glowing obituary of Levi in 'The Independent' on Levi's death in February 2000). Amongst his large output he wrote two books on his experiences and aquaintances in Greece. 'The Hill of Kronos', 1980 and 'A bottle in the shade: a journey in the Western Peloponnese. 1996. Some find these books evocative, I have to admit, reluctantly, that they rather bored me.
There is an excellent on-line version of Pausanias within the superb Perseus Digital Library of classical texts hosted by Tufts University
Click on this link to go to the Perseus Pausanias
Cyriaco of Ancona
Called variously Cyriac, Cyriacos, Cyriacus, Kyryakos etc. etc - his family name was Cyriaco di Filippo de' Pizzicolli. He lived from c.1391-c.1452 and was an Italian merchant, humanist scholar and indefatigable searcher after ancient inscriptions. He was also the first such collector of inscriptions to actually describe his travels and sketch the remains. He visited southern Mani in 1447 - visiting Itilo, Dri and the Cavo Grosso, Kiparissos, Porto Kayio and eventually crossing over to Githeon via Paleo-Kariopolis. He describes a peaceful and prosperous landscape under the rule of the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea. Although a fair number of Cyriaco's writings and drawings were lost in a fire in 1514 a good amount of letters, diaries, sketches and journals still exist.
There's an excellent transcript of the original and English translations of his later writings by Professor Edward Bodnar which includes the Mani relevant material.
Cyriac of Ancona: Later travels
edited and translated by Edward W. Bodnar
I Tatti Renaissance Library (10) Harvard University Press. 2003. ISBN 0674007581
Alonso de Contreras
Contreras was a Spanish soldier and sailor at the end of the 16th and early seventeenth century. His career took him throughout Europe and the Mediterranean and he often worked for the Knights of St. John of Malta. His memoirs were written down in a short burst when he was in his fifties (he was born in 1582) and one could doubt that such a picaresque series of adventures (and misadventures) are actually true. Scholars think that they are. Contreras is boastful, cocksure and one has to take the veracity of his accounts with a certain scepticism - however he does tell stories against himself and rather like the similarly doubted Evliya Celebi (see below) there's a vivid sense of reality about his stories which counts against the possibility they are mere yarns.
Contreras was, by his own account, an excellent seaman and knew the eastern Med' exceptionally well and appears to have spoken both Turkish and Greek. He obviously passed by Mani on a number of occasions and his description of the Maniates and their peninsula is brief but accords with other evidence. He describes the Maniates as robbbers and tells of their skill with the bow and arrow (a local shoots an orange off his own son's head in a more exotic variation on the William Tell legend). Contreras brags about the literally stinging revenge he took on the local chieftain at Porto Kayio who tried to cheat him in a chapter entitled 'I whip and salt a Mainotee'. Earlier in his career Contreras was part of a raiding party of Christian galleys which seized the castle of Passava.
There are many Spanish versions of the 'Via del capitan Contreras'
The most recent English language translation is
The Adventures of Captain Alonso de Contreras: A 17th century journey. Translated and annotated by Philip Dallas
Paragon House. New York. 1989. ISBN 1557781680
Seyahatname(The Book of Travels)
I list this in the full knowledge that no published version of Celebi's record of his travels in Mani exists in English - nor is likely to, according to a terse one word (negative) email I got from an expert on the subject. Evliya Celebi was a great traveller in the 17th century Ottoman Empire. Born in 1611 Evliya was brought up in the middle ranking court official circles. He claims to have had a dream in which he travelled - so he set out to do it in reality. By the way his name is a mask. Evliya means Court Iman or 'Government Official' and Celebi - pronounced Chelebi - means 'Gentleman'. His travels took him to the far corners of the Ottoman Empire and probably beyond (at least as far as Vienna). He is remarkable in many ways but mainly because he wrote in everyday language rather than the high officialize of the Ottoman court. His books of his travel writing were compiled at the end of his life and are passed down to us in doubtless corrupt versions. There are few translations into English and those scholarly texts we do have (see the volumes edited by Robert Dankoff and Robert Elsie published by E.J.Brill) do not yet cover his records of his journeys to the Peloponnese.
He accompanied the Turkish armies in their expedition into Mani in 1668-70 and was employed by Ali Pasha, the Turkish Commander to travel to Albania to recruit workmen and troops to rebuild the fortresses of Zarnata and Kelefa. Evliya is not a completely trustworthy observer. He is thought to have invented some of his journeys, especially those to some north-western European countries and is inordinately fond of repeating folklore and unlikely tales. For instance he tells of cats who froze to death while jumping from rooftop to rooftop in a particularly cold winter. That apart there is the ring of truth about much of his writing. His descriptions of locations match other evidence, both contemporary to him and present day remains. In Mani we can recognise all the locations he described - apart from somewhere called Agia Varvara - which I can't clearly identify with a present-day location.
There is a translation from the Ottoman Turkish into modern Greek of Evliya's Peloponnesian travels by Dimitris Loupis. The quotes from Evliya in these web pages are based upon Prof. Malcolm Wagstaff's handwritten translations of this Greek translation, of which I was generously given a copy.
Evlia Chelebi. Odoiporiko stin Ellada (1668-1671) - Peloponisos.
Athens. Ekdoseis Ekati. 1994. ISBN 9607437071
Dimo and Nicolo Stephanopoli
Voyage de Dimo et Nicolo Stephanopoli en Grece: pendant les années V et VI (1797 et 1798) d'apres deux missions, dont l'une du Gouvernement francais et l'autre du général en chef Buonaparte. Redigé par un des professeurs du Pyrtanée 1799.
These two Corsicans - of Maniate descent (from the emigration of a large part of the population of Itilo in 1675) were sent by Buonaparte to Mani in 1795 to assess the local situation for a possible French Revolutionary incursion into the area. Dimo was in his seventies and was a respected scientist. Nicolo was his twenty year old nephew. The two volumes based on their travels were published in Paris in 1800. Although one can glean some interesting material on the contemporary state of the peninsula and its inhabitants it is a rather turgid read. The author(s?) have used the third person narrative voice and turned it into a sub novella-ish romance. There are numerous presumed fictional romantic sub plots concerning young Nicolo and Maniate maidens and an overtone of declamatory revolutionary fervour rather stultifies the whole endeavour. The Maniates were depicted as freedom loving descendants of the Free Lakedemonians and Spartans - a highly romantic fantasy which one still encounters to this day.
Even their own fellow countrymen (well sort of, most Corsicans can give, or take, being thought of as French, depending, that is, on their mood), the members of the Expédition Scientifique de Morée weren't overly impressed and commented 35 years later of the Stephanopoli
"…they saw many things, through the eyes of their imagination. Their account, written up by a professor of Paris, doesn't merit much confidence; they confused the feudal customs of the 13th century with those of the ancient Spartans".*
Very expensive when it appears on the second hand market (I saw one on the Web for £600) it is available as a copyright free download from the Bibliotheque National de France's Gallica site. http://gallica.bnf.fr
* To be fair to the Stephanopoli, the Expedition members were equally fond of developing tenuous and dubious links between the societal mores of early 19th century Mani with those of their ancestors, the Franks; who barely ruled Mani for more than a decade six centuries earlier.
Voyage en Moreé, a Constantinople, en Albanie, et dans plusiers autres parties de l'empire othoman, pendant les années 1798,1799,1800 et 1801. 3 vols. 1805.
Francois Charles Hugues Laurent Pouqueville (1770-1838) was from Le Merlerault in south Normandy. He was trained as an historian at Caen before studying to become a Doctor. He accompanied the French Expedition to Egypt in 1799 as doctor to the scientific research team. Ironically he himself was taken ill and was put on a ship home for France. On the journey the ship was was seized by pirates and Pouqueville ended up the prisoner of the Turks in Tripolitza (modern Tripolis in central Peloponnese). He was kept here for 3 months before being moved to Constantinople. He eventually returned to Paris in 1801.
He observed and listened much during his enforced stay and on his return to France wrote and published the above book. It was an instant success and was translated into a number of foreign languages including English (1813). Pouqueville was sent by Napoleon's Empire government as Consul-General to the court of Ali Pasha in Ioannina in 1805. Here he controlled a wide circle of French Agents and worked hard to counter the efforts of the other major powers and their agents in the area. He was criticised relatively early on by Byron, who with his chum, Hobhouse visited Ali Pasha's Epirus in 1806. The poet in his notes to Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (Canto II, Stanza 47) observed that " Pouqueville is always out" - in the sense that Pouqueville was always vaguely inaccurate. The British Agent in Epirus during Pouqueville's consulship was the industrious Captain William Martin Leake, who had actually visited Mani in 1805. From reports it would seem Pouqueville seems to have incorporated all of those French traits of character, arrogance and revolutionary zeal, which most antagonise the cold, phlegmatic and conservative English. Charles Cockerell (see below) met Pouqueville and his brother in Ioannina, and heartily loathed them. After the fall of Napoleon in 1815 Pouqueville became Consul in Patras for two years before returning home.
He wrote various other publications about Greece and switched his political views and opinions of the Greeks between various versions but was generally pro-Greek. He reports fulsomely on Mani and from the text it would seem as if he visited the area. However it is generally assumed that he based his account on reports and hearsay and in fact never travelled to Mani. The great, if mostly, nowadays, unread, French romantic, Chateaubriand wrote of him," the best guide to the Morea would certainly be M. Pouqueville, if he had been able to see all the places he described, unfortunately he was a prisoner in Tripolitza".
Secondhand copies of the many editions appear from time to time, at a price. There is a copyright free downloadable version of the 1st French edition at the Bibliotheque National de France's Gallica site. http://gallica.bnf.fr and there are copies of the 1813 English translation in research libraries.
Sibthorp (1758-1796) was Sherardian Professor at Oxford University and one of the leading botanists of his age. He travelled extensively in the Ottoman Empire covering large parts of Greece and western Anatolia in two journeys ( 1786-7 and 1794-5) with his companion John Hawkins (1758-1841) a gentleman who had strong interests in geology and topography. The fruits of these endeavours were eventually to appear in the splendid 'Flora Graeca' illustrated with the marvellous watercolours of the Austrian artist Ferdinand Bauer (1760-1826) who accompanied them on their first journey. Sibthorp and Hawkins visited Cardamoula [Kardamili] for a matter of three days in mid April 1795 and our knowledge of this visit are contained in Sibthorp's diary entries and those of Hawkins' servant James Thoburn's diaries (unpublished, but in the Cornish Public Records Office Truro as part of the Hawkins family archive). Hawkins kept a journal but many of his papers were wantonly destroyed by one of his descendants in the early 1900s.
Excerpts from Sibthorp's diaries appear in the edited volumes of travellers memoirs published in the early 1800s by Robert Walpole (Memoirs relating to European and Asiatic Turkey, and other countries of the East. 1817 and Travels in various countries of the East etc. 1820)This is now available on Google Book Search
Sibthorp unfortunately did not live to see the publication of the 'Flora Graeca'. Exhausted by his exertions he died of tuberculosis at Bath in February 1796, at the age of 37, soon after his return to England from his second journey. It took many more decades for the Flora Graeca to actually appear in print, partly because Sibthorp's handwriting was practically unreadable and often he had simply failed to to label samples, relying solely on his memory.
There is a fine publication which looks at the whole creation of the Flora Graeca and Sibthorp and Hawkins' journeys. I cannot recommend it highly enough - apart, that is, for it's price - a wallet gobbling £220! It is H. Walter Lack with David Mabberley. The Flora Graeca Story: Sibthorp, Bauer and Hawkins in the Levant. Oxford University Press. 1999.
John B. S. Morritt
The Letters of J.B.S.Morritt of Rokeby:Descriptive of Journeys in Europe and Asia Minor in the Years 1794-1796.
Morritt (1772-1843) was an aristocratic Briton who dabbled with antiquity and partook of a Grand Tour in the years 1794 - 1796. His letters home to his Mother and sisters make entertaining, if superficial, reading. Part of his travels took him to Mani calling first at Kitries thence to Kardamili and on to Marathonisi (Githeon) via Platsa and Itilo. Although rather disappointed with modern Greeks, commenting "I really have English blood enough in me to kick a Greek for the fawning servility he thinks is politeness", he was delighted with the Maniates, especially the females whom he describes in lascivious detail. He was literally a few days ahead of Sibthorp in his visit to Kardamili.
There are various editions which have appeared from time to time. The latest was a paperback version published by Century in 1985. Morritt also wrote a journal, large exerpts of which are contained in the two volumes by Walpole described above in the section on John Sibthorp. The exerpts relevant to Mani are in the Memoirs volume of 1817 pages 33 - 59 (there are also many of the second printing of this volume in 1818 in good academic libraries)
Sir William Gell
Narrative of a Journey in the Morea. 1823.
Gell's narrative of his journey to the Morea in 1804 is on one level an engaging and often amusing account of an aristocratic Englishman abroad. The downside is that Gell vehemently disliked the Greeks finding them servile and indolent and published these accounts of his journey at the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence as a warning that any modern Greek state was doomed to failure as the Greeks' were, in his opinion, too degenerate to sustain the political process. It's worth pointing out that his reactionary views flew against contemporary public opinion and the publication of the book was greeted with scorn by The Edinburgh Review who wrote a long and vituperative article in May 1823, pointing out that his experiences were 19 years out of date and rubbishing Gell's facts, opinions and attitudes. It ended with this crushingly ironic paragraph.
'Bound as we are to warn 'the reading public' against all hawkers of spurious commodities, we really cannot recommend this work to their notice; but we think it but fair to add, that it may be considerable use to the owners of Masquerade warehouses, as containing some choice descriptions of breeches, sashes and waiscoats, which, we have no doubt, might prove serviceable in making up an Oriental costume.'
Regarding the Mani, Gell only travelled from Kalamata to Kitries, stayed there for a week or so with the then Bey Antonis Grigorakis, and came back - but from this brief visit he came to the conclusion that the 'free' Maniates were, if anything, worse than the Greeks under the Ottoman rule. If one can put aside his snobbish, aristocratic airs and extremely condescending opinion of the Greeks, which were, after all often typical of the time he visited the Morea, he was a keen enough observer.
Gell was a member of the Dilettanti Society and knew many other travellers. His interest in ancient sites and his minor skill as an artist lead him to produce an illustrated volume of Troy. Today he is held by many as one of the founding father's of British Egyptology and met and corresponded with the Frenchman who deciphered the Rossetta Stone, Champollion. In his last years he was a fixture of the British community in Rome and died there in 1836.
William Martin Leake
Travels in The Morea. 3 vols. 1830.
Leake was an English military officer who joined the Royal Artillery in 1792 and after a quiet start to his career he was posted to the British Military Mission to Turkey. He was sent on a number of assignments to Turkey and Greece during the Napoleonic Wars. His first ended in near death when he embarked on Lord Elgin's ship The Mentor which was transporting some of the infamous Parthenon marbles back to Britain. The ship hit a rock off Kithera on 16th October 1802 and sank. The crew, and Leake, were saved and the marbles salvaged. Leake returned to Greece in 1804 with the rank of Captain with the brief of surveying the country and making political connections. He visited the Mani for a matter of a few weeks in April 1805. Leake travelled down the peninsula from Githeon to Areopoli then south to Asomato before returning north to Limeni where he met the later Bey of Mani, Petros Mavromichalis. Here he had to set sail to Kitries as some of the local kapetani of Androuvitsa and Zygos were in dispute with the then Bey, Antonis Grigorakis and therefore never saw the area from Itilo to Kardamili except from a boat.
Leake's notebooks are still in archives in Cambridge University's Classics Faculty Library, but they differ, in detail, little from the published version (except that he names more personal names and that they are more difficult to read due to Leake's handwriting!). The volumes above (vol. 1 contains the Mani material) were edited a quarter of a century later and very much reproduce the content of his notebooks and diaries, though he did also produce more secretive and focused reports for the British Government. For the letters and memorandum that he sent to the Foreign Office concerning Mani see The Public Records Office at Kew, (FO 78/57). There is a transcript of Leake's Mani despatch to Lord Harrowby of 3 May 1805 in Eleni Angelomatis-Tsourgarakis, ‘I Mani stis anafores tou Leake pros to Foreign Office’ Lakonikai Spoudai 10 (1990) 339-367. The discussion of the content is in Greek but Leake's letters are transcribed in their original English.
Leake was a keen and sympathetic observer and interested in ancient ruins and sites though he tended to ignore medieval ruins and churches. The narrative is very readable though one gets somewhat tired of his inclusion of exact distances and times, he had an artilleryman's eye for topography. Leake was objective about the state of the Greeks realising that the low esteem they found themselves in was due to years of Turkish oppression and western indifference. He wrote of the Maniates. "A greater share of candour and veracity is a natural consequence of their independence, rendering falsehood and dissimulation less necessary than they are to other Greeks, who have no other arms of defence against their oppressors."
He also wrote volumes on Northern Greece, Epiros and Albania where he was a rival to the Frenchman Pouqueville for the diplomatic attentions of Ali Pasha, the virtually independent ruler of the area. In addition to the above volumes Leake published an additional tome, 'Peloponnesiaca' in 1846 which is generally concerned with addenda and corrections on the location of ancient sites. Although of great use to classicists and archaeologists it has little of interest to the Mani enthusiast though it does include a version of the French Morea Map - which Leake, while praising the project, takes delight in correcting on the fine toponymical detail.
The northern Greek volume is available on-line from Leiden University in what seems to have been a stalled project to put all Leake's work on the Web. There have been facsimile reprints of Leake's oeuvre from Hakert Press and there are now affordable paperback facsimile versions published by Elibron in the USA. www.elibron.com and there are digital facsimiles of all of his tomes on the Google Book Search site ((you have to search for them)
After returning to England after his adventures in the Napoleonic Wars Leake never returned to the Levant and led a quiet life in England attending meetings of the Dilettanti Society and corresponding with other scholars such as the geologist John Hawkins (the travelling companion of Sibthorp) and the great philhellene and scholar of things Greek, George Finlay. Leake died at Hove in 1860. His grave, much neglected, is in Kensal Green Cemetery, W. London.
There are a collection of scholarly concise profiles of Leake and Gell in…
Travellers in the Levant: Voyagers and Visionaries. Sarah Searight & Malcolm Wagstaff (eds) Astene. Durham. 2001. (N.B. the book is distributed by Oxbow Books of Oxford)
Voyages and Travels in the years 1809,1810 and 1811 containing statistical, commercial, and miscellaneous observations . London. T. Cadell & W. Davies. 1812.
The Scot John Galt visited Mani in 1810 when, after a stay in Cerigo, (Kithera) he landed at Marathonisi (Githeon). He didn't stay long visiting just that town and Antonbey Grigorakis' castle at Vathi just to the south of Githeon before pressing on to Sparta and Tripolitza. He seems to have been quietly impressed by the Maniates, whereas his views of the Greeks under Turkish rule are less complimentary. He makes the usual, tendentious, links between the Maniates and the ancient Spartans. Galt later became a renowned popular novelist of his period and the founder of the city of Guelph in Ontario, Canada.
Charles Robert Cockerell
Travels in Southern Europe and the Levant. 1810-1817
London. Longman's & Green and co. 1903. With a foreword by his son Samuel Pepys Cockerell. Facsimile reprint. Routledge. 1999.
Cockerell (1788-1863) was another of those young men who wished to do a Grand Tour but was frustrated by the fact that the Napoleonic Wars had closed off many of the usual sights. He was primarily interested in drawing and recording (and often, it has to be said, appropriating) ancient sites and went on to be one of the foremost exponents of neo-classical architecture in England designing such buildings as the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford and The Bank of England. His recollections are lively and extremely readable and although he found that the difficulties of finding ancient remains in Mani were too expensive - basically the local kapetani reckoned he needed to hire an escort of at least 40 of their pallikares to ensure the foreigners' safety - his observations on the NW of Mani give a revealing portrait of Kardamili under Panayiotis Mourtzinos in 1811. Cockerell met both Pouqueville and Gell during his wanderings and one wonders if they talked of Mani.
Otto Magnus von Stackelberg
La Grèce: Vues pittoresques et topographiques. Paris. 1834
Von Stackelberg (1787-1837 - confusingly Cockerell's son has von S's dates as 1760-1836) was an Estonian nobleman who travelled widely in Greece during the 1810s - often in the company of Charles Cockerell. He sketched views and costumes and these were made into lithographs for this impressive volume which covers most of his Greek travels. He visited north west Mani with Cockerell in 1811 and appears to have revisited the area some years later (probably 1813) and in this volume there are illustrations of Matapan (which they must have circumnavigated as they never got further than just south of Kardamili on land), Kardamili, Stavropigio/Varousi (Stackelberg called it Malta, though that was actually where he was sitting sketching) and Lefktro (Stoupa) and the view south down the west coast of Mani. There are commentaries, in French, on the various plates.
Travels in Eygpt, Syria, Cyprus, the Morea, Greece, Italy etc.etc.
2nd ed. printed for Henry Colbourn. 1820
Bramsen was the companion to the eldest son of Sir John Maxwell on his 'Grand Tour' of July 1813 - September 1815. They visited much of Europe not under French control and on 24 October 1814 they sailed from Cerigo (Kythera) and, having to flee from a Maniat pirate schooner, landed in Marathonisi (present day Githeion). Here they met the Bey and his 'Major', Isam Bey. The Bey was somewhat poorly and asked Bramsen for medicine. Having heard what happened to travellers who procured potions for oriental rulers, which failed to work, Bramsen was somewhat nervous. Having passed this test Bramsen and his party travelled on to Mistra via Bardounia which he describes as being almost as lawless as Mani, and where Bramsen's party was almost robbed by locals. His observations on the Maniates are similar to other witnesses viz."Indeed their sole accomplishment and the principal branch of their education is the art of handling arms; to the use of which the women are equally accustomed as the men…"
Rev. Charles Swan
Journal of a voyage up the Mediterranean: principally among the islands of the Archipelago, and in Asia Minor, including many interesting particulars relative to the Greek revolution
London. C & J Rivington. 1826
Swan was the chaplain on board HMS Cambrian, a 40 gun frigate based in Greek waters in the 1820s under the command of Captain Gawen William Hamilton. Swan joined a party from the Cambrian who visited Petrobey Mavromichalis at Kitries in 1825 and formed a small mission to Ibrahim Pasha, the Egyptian/Turkish commander in the Peloponnese, for the exchange of prisoners. These, importantly, included one of Petrobey's sons. His recollections of Mavromichalis and his quarters in Kitries and his descriptions of the terrible state of the war torn Morea are of considerable interest.
Narrative of cruises in the Mediterranean in HMS Euryalus and Chanticleer during the Greek War of Independence
Edinburgh. Oliver & Boyd. 1900
Black was the surgeon on the above British naval vessels in Greek waters during the struggle for Independence. He witnessed the siege of Missolonghi and other actions. He comments briefly on Mani in two chapters although most of his observations are naturally rather distanced by the fact that he was observing from the deck of a ship and didn't land that often. He visited Marathonisi (Githion) in October 1825 when it was under threat from the Ottoman forces under Ibrahim Pasha.
Henry A.V. Post
A Visit to Greece and Constaninople in the Year 1827-8
New York. 1830
Henry Post was an agent of the New York Greek Committee and sailed on the brig 'Jane' to Greece in the autumn of 1827 with a large amount of aid (flour and clothing) for the many refugees from the war in the Morea. He landed just after the news of the Battle of Navarino had been received. A small group of American philhellenes, Samuel Gridley Howe, William Miller and George Jarvis (or Jervis) had switched from fighting to philanthropy. In December 1827 Post and Jarvis were sent with a large part of the aid to northern Mani where they distributed it to the many Moreotes taking refuge in the hills just south of the lines of Verga. The army of Ibrahim Pasha being still at Kalamata.
The Americans landed at Kitries and then moved up to Almyros. Mainly, it must be admitted, to get away from the attentions of the Mavromichalis, whom they suspected wanted the aid to feed and clothe their own pallikares. Other Greek captains tried to appropriate the aid and it took all of Jarvis' calm nerve and a loaded musket to send them packing.
After distributing the aid they sailed to Scardamoula (Kardamili) and then to Limeni and Tsimova (Areopolis) where they met other members of the Mavromichalis clan. Deciding to explore the deep Mani they walked down the western side of Mesa Mani. Post's feet suffered from the stony ground and while Jarvis continued southwards as far as Kaenopolis, Post rested up at a local chieftain's pyrgos at Kotsifas near Mina (the tower still exists). Here he spent an uncomfortable few days stuck in a room with a bunch of Maniates as a storm raged around them and was relieved when Jarvis returned. From here they crossed over to Skutari and Marathonisi. Later in the spring of 1829 Post met with Petrobey Mavromichalis on Aegina.
Post's account is generally entertaining and informative and he has a relatively acute sense of humour which only loses him when he is greeted with wet kisses by whiskery chieftains in Tsimova. The book is available from Google Book Search.
Expédition Scientifique de Morée, ordonnée par le Gouvernement français. Various vols. 1830s
I'm being deliberately vague about the bibliographical details of the various volumes of the publications which were issued, by subscription, under the auspicies of this French Expedition. Mainly because I've never quite got my head round exactly how many volumes were produced, by whom and when* - and some of the participants published individual volumes. But I've perused many of them in the Bodeleian and British Library and on-line from the French National Library's 'Gallica' site. The catalogues of the British libraries are available via COPAC and the Bibliothèque National de France's online offerings (the illustrated volumes on flora and fauna) are at the BNF's Gallica site.
Lead by J.B.G. M. Bory de St. Vincent, a number of French academics and experts were despatched with the French Army which occupied the Morea in the years 1828-30 in the aftermath of the Greek War of Independence. Their task was to emulate the great scientific mission which accompanied Napoleon Buonaparte's invasion of Eygpt some 30 years earlier. Their's was the first proper trigonometric survey of the Peloponnese and the Atlas volume of 1835 alone is worth poring over and is gorgeous to behold. They also sent, amongst others, archaeologists, botanists, geologists, artists and what one would nowadays call anthropological geographers to travel around the Morea, recording and sketching. In a report in The Times of September 1829 Bory de St. Vincent was reported as saying
'In Laconia as well as in Messenia the French are the objects of the most friendly dispositions on the part of the inhabitants;even in the small villages they do not begin public worship without a general prayer for the Royal Family of France. The manners of the Mainotes have interested us extremely. Their history will certainly form the most interesting part of our narrative. we claim the honour of having been the first among Europeans who penetrated amongst the descendants of the Spartans, amongst whom we found the manners of ancient times, modified by feudal customs, which are in spirit those of the 13th century'.
Apart from the fact that it is unlikely - in the absence of French onlookers who needed to be flattered - that any Greek congregation would bother to waste a single breath praying for the Bourbon family (and at the time many French people would have also singularly failed in this respect - the 1830 revolution was just round the corner) it is obvious that this is a shameless and inaccurate plug for the Expedition on behalf of Bory. The published volumes do mention the earlier travellers to Mani (they could, for example, hardly ignore the Stephanopoli's account - all though they do cast justified aspersions on the Corsicans' veracity) and the actual experiences of the French at the hands of the Maniates was less friendly and more fraught than the above report would lead one to believe.
The researchers were assiduous in their efforts and Bory reported that, "The excess of labour under an ardent sun, was at length nearly fatal to some of the travellers. M. Baccuet became dangerously ill, as did M. Virlet, whose zeal carried him too far…" - in Mani they had to contend with open clan warfare in Stavri and Lagia, extortion with threat of violence in Alika and narrowly avoided wholesale robbery in Flomochori.
*The Expedition produced 1 atlas and ten volumes of text - for a concise overview see Malcolm Wagstaff's paper 'Surveying the Morea: The French Expedition' in 'Travellers in the Near East'. Charles Foster (ed.) ASTENE and Stacey International. 2004. ISBN 1900988712
Observations upon the Peloponnesus and Greek islands made in 1829 by Rufus Anderson one of the secretaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
Boston. Crocker & Brewster. 1830
Anderson (1796-1880) was Secretary of the Prudential Committee of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions and visited Greece after the War of Independence with a mind to sending Protestant missionaries and establishing schools (one was active in Tsimova/Areopolis from 1836-1842). He was invited to Tsimova by Petrobey Mavromichalis but for some, unstated, reason didn't go there but visited Vardounia and Marathonisi (Githeion). Anderson was a matter of fact observer and his account adds little colour to our knowledge of Mani. Of deep Mani, which he and his party glimpsed, Anderson wrote of one of his colleagues 'Mr Smith thought he had never seen such a spot that seemed less inviting - not even the Arabian desert'. Anderson visited other lands for the ABCFM, from India to the Pacific islands and wrote volumes on his travels. A biographical study of Anderson has been published by Paul William Harris for OUP New York in 1999.
Henry John George Herbert, Earl of Carnarvon
Reminiscences of Athens and the Morea: extracts from a journal of travels in Greece in 1839.
London. John Murray. 1869
Henry Herbert, 3rd Earl of Carnarvon (1800-1849) visited Greece in May 1839, ten years after the end of the War of Independence and found Mani a fascinating place. An intellectually curious and sympathetic traveller he sought out folktales and local beliefs and legends. Carnarvon was also aware that the whole of Greece was going through a period of enormous change and one can catch a glimpse of an old world and political order in Mani which was at odds with the new Greek state and the modernising and westernising influences. These extracts from his journals were edited by his son, the 4th Earl. I'm trying to track down the whereabouts of Carnarvon's actual journal. There are extensive archives of the Herbert family at Hampshire County Records Office which include a letter he wrote concerning his Mani journey to his brother; but not the journal. It's clear that his son had hoped that the journal of his Greek journey was rightly his (and he was extremely proud of the publication of this edition), but another relative seems to have had a claim on it and where it has quite ended up I'm uncertain.
The Greece of the Greeks.
New York. Paine & Burgess. 1845. (2 vols)
Gregory Perdicaris, a Greek educated in the USA, was the first US consul in Athens in the late 1830s. He travelled extensively in Greece and visited Mani in (I assume from deduction) 1842. He passed by Vardounia and commented on the remains of the towers of the fierce Albanian tribes who had occupied this area until 1821. He then visited Githeion (which interestingly he names as Gythium - up until then all travellers call it Marathonisi) and then travelled by mule (horses were of little use in Mani and he sent his back to Mistra) staying with the American missionary schoolmaster Leyburn in Areopolis. He then sailed from Limeni to Kitries staying with members of the Mavromichalis family in their ruined castle before riding via Almyros to Kalamata. He extensively quotes great chunks of Leake (who is consistently misspelt as Leak) and repeats other anectdotal views on Mani. Perdicaris didn't go into deep Mani but reports the observations of a Mr Benjamin, another American missionary who had gone as far as Matapan the previous year. Perdicaris lectured widely on Greek topics in the US and eventually resigned his post due to the fact that the US government wasn't giving the consulate enough money to exist on.
The Customs and Lore of Modern Greece
London. David Stott.1892
James Rennell Rodd (1st Baron Rennell) was Second Secretary in the British Embassy from 1889-1891 and this book was the fruit of his curiosity in what we would now call anthropological studies. Although it covers all of Greece researching into, amongst many topics, village festivals, beliefs, luck, divination, the supernatural and Klephtic songs he paid attention to Mani and the Maniates and obviously rode around the district. Rodd wrote many later works of history including an account of the Frankish rulers of the Morea and became one of the leading British diplomats of his generation.
For a list of acknowledgments click here